Over the centuries, many generations of Chinese cooking masters perfected ways of cooking various dishes of national kitchen, which came to our days as one of the many cultural heritages of the great Chinese people.
Even in ancient times, the great Chinese philosopher Confucius taught some techniques of cooking. He believed that the proportion of meat in the dish should be about one-third of the total number of all vegetables. In the food necessary to add a certain amount of ginger. Products should be cut into strips or small pieces, and the pieces of meat, poultry, fish must be the same size and shape as well as vegetables. These rules operate and Chinese now.
In the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties (265-583 gg. N. E. ) Were released cookbooks: " Delicatessen ", " culinary business", " Cooking ", etc. Between Ghana and the Sung dynasty (700-1000 years. n. e. ) Were published such works as " Menu ", " Gourmet food and cooking ", " Chinese food ", etc.
Culinary arts of China throughout its long history, served the interests of the rich and officials. It was not the property of the people.
After the proclamation of the People's Republic of China national culinary arts became nationwide.
The Chinese People's Government pays great attention to the development of cooking. For example, in June 1956 in Beijing, there was an exhibition of food products on which to exchange experiences and demonstrated the art of cooking Chinese food. In the work of the exhibition was attended by many chefs China.
Lately in China were published in books on Chinese kitchen: "Chinese delicacies," " Home-cooked meals," " Traditional provincial delicacies ", " Technology of preparation of Chinese delicacies," " menu and recipe homemade dishes ", " Delicatessen China" and others.
Chinese kitchen is divided into provincial kitchen and local specialties (separate cities). The best known are fourteen kitchens. They all differ from one another not only palatable dishes, but also the technology of their preparation.
Chinese kitchen is characterized by a rich assortment of various nutrients and beautifully presented dishes. It uses all that nature can give. No wonder they say in China, " inedible not have a bad cook."
In Chinese kitchen, along with fresh food uses a large amount of dried, pickled and dried foods.
Hundreds of Chinese chefs prepare dishes from tofu (fresh, dried, pickled), dried soy pancake and other semi-finished products made from soy.
Dairy products, butter, ghee, margarine and cheese in Chinese kitchen are not used. However, milk and butter in a small amount used in the Beijing kitchen, but this is due to the Europeanization of some Chinese dishes. The most commonly used pig and chicken fat, sesame oil, cottonseed oil and maize.
Cutting products and methods of heat treatment - two main processes are closely linked. Unevenly cut to length and thickness products during heat treatment either overcooked or undercooked. This dish will not be nutritious and delicious.
In Chinese kitchen, as indicated above, for most food products are cut in pieces of a small size.
Below gives an example of cutting products for some of the dishes described in this book.
The cubes of 1 cubic centimeter cut products for food " chicken fillet, roasted red pepper," " Pork fried in gunbao " etc.
Strips 2 mm thick, 6-8 cm long cut products for food, " Tenderloin fried with Szechuan cabbage ", " pasta salad ", " Seaweed salad with chicken ", etc.
Diamonds 1 cm thick, 2 cm and a length of 6 -7 cm cut to food products, " Cut slices of stock ", " stock Pork loin slices," etc.
1.5-2 mm thick slices, 2 cm, 5-6 cm long cut products for a variety of dishes, " Lamb fried with mushrooms ", " Pork fried with noodles ", etc.
When cutting meat or fish in one piece per serving (" fried fish ", " fish fries ", " Cutting stock ", etc.) or products with cutting diamonds (" Tenderloin slices stock ", etc.), as well as the processing of porcine kidney, ducks and chicken giblets (stomach and liver) before heat treatment on both sides of the product make shallow oblique incisions (crosswise).
The main focus of this treatment is drawn to the product to be evenly and at the same depth incised. This gives not only a beautiful appearance of the finished dish, but also enables us to avoid overcooking or nedozharivaniya products.
Chinese chefs slicing products enjoy large knives, hatchets. These cleavers cooks not only cut food into small pieces, and cut cucumbers but to fan the finest slices, cut into slice eggs, of which not crumble or pellet yolk, ham converted uphill almost transparent plates of ham, etc.
Fast and strong fire - the first and necessary condition for the manufacture of Chinese dishes.
Quick cooking, which usually spends no more than 2-3 minutes, ensured not only prepared in advance intermediates, having in a Chinese kitchen of paramount importance, but also the presence of special chambers (plates).
Plates in Chinese kitchen with several large open burners. From one burner flame is knocked to the height of 30 - 40 cm, fire temperature reaches 300 - 400 ° C (high heat), another flame burners and almost knocked it lower temperature (medium heat), and thirdly there is no flame (low heat). Recently in China were used gas.
Depending on the type of heat treatment of products used flame varying strengths. Use in the manufacture of food oval frying pan, colander and chumichkoy. In a frying pan cook hot meals, soups, sauces, etc. For cooking in large quantities (10 servings and above) apply pan with two metal handles. When cooked in a frying pan until the products are immersed in the half recesses burners.
Utensils and equipment used in Chinese kitchens, convenient, portable and durable.
Many dishes are steamed. To do this in Chinese kitchen has a special focus to the boiler in which water boils vigorously. On the boiler put special sieves one above the other.
Under the influence of hot steam passing through a high pyramid standing on each other sieves, food is cooked until tender.
The following describes the most common ways of cooking products, and variations thereof are used in a Moscow restaurant "Beijing" in the manufacture of Chinese dishes.
Soaking in water (Zhou) - products put in cold or hot water (depending on the product) and cook on low heat. During cooking, cold water was added. This method is used for cooking dumplings.
Cooking in the broth (Chuan) - boiling broth lowered thinly sliced pieces of meat, poultry, fish and put on high heat. When the broth boils, take out food, since they are already boiled. If the products are not very thinly sliced, then after a second broth boils, you need to put it on a minute on low heat. This method is mainly used for some clear soups.
Cooking in a broth with spices (Hui) - in a pan with plenty of broth with spices dipped products and heated in the fire of medium strength. After removing the foam poured starch dissolved in cold water (1: 2). To when brewing starch did not form lumps, it is poured in a thin stream, all the while rotating the pan from left to right. This method is used for preparing a bouillon with cuttlefish and omelets, and hot dishes in sauce.
Cooking in the marinade (Lu) - in a bowl and pour water as much soy sauce, dipped gauze bag with spices (a mixture of cinnamon, cloves, ginger, star anise, pepper huatsze), add aromatic vegetables, sugar, and rice wine Zhenka. All this is brought to a boil over low heat. Then in a bowl with the marinade and put food on low heat and cook them until tender. Broth remaining after pulping can be used several times, adding a spice. In this way prepared aromatic chicken, giblets, lamb, etc.
Steaming (Chang) - a porcelain or pottery put products added spices and seasonings and put the dishes in the steam sieve. The sieve is set in a pot of boiling water and holding it there until the products are not yet ready. This way boiled rice, dumplings, dumplings, etc.
Quenching (Shao) - the pan pour a small amount of fat, heat it over high heat, put the products and fried for a minute, then pour the wine, broth, put spices. All this stew over low heat until tender, then put on a strong fire and hold up until the liquid evaporates. This method is used for cooking " sweet and sour pork ", etc.
Quenching (Peng) - first foods fried in a pan on both sides until golden brown, then pour in the chicken broth, put the spices and keep on low heat until the broth until completely evaporated. Prepared in this way, " The prawns stewed " and other dishes.
Fried foods from both sides (Jian) in a small amount of fat - in a pan put oil, heat it over medium heat. In hot fat and fry foods lowered them on both sides until golden brown. Then spices and seasonings are placed, inverted several times products shaking pan. So fried foods for meals " meatballs south ", etc.
Roasting products polufrityure (Chao) - pour oil into the pan, the amount of which shall be equal to the number of products, put meat, poultry, fish, fry them all the time shaking to " fire pan and stirring metal sticks to foods evenly browned, then throws them. Thereafter, in a frying pan with the remaining small amount of fat put other products included in the meal, fry them until half, shaking the pan over the fire, add the pre- fried main products (meat, poultry, fish) and fry until cooked. This way is prepared following dishes " Lamb fried with mushrooms and bamboo shoots syangu ", " Tenderloin, roasted with root false ", " chicken fillet, roasted pepper," etc.
Roasting in the polufrityure (any) - heated frying pan over high heat, pour in oil in an equal amount of food and when it warms up to 70 ; -80 °, put the products, cut into pieces and soaked in egg and starch diluted with cold water (1 2). When frying foods, so they do not stick together, stir sticks. In this way prepared the following dishes: " loin fried with garlic and onions ", " fried pork liver," etc.
Deep fried (Ja) - the pan pour a large amount of fat (3-4 L), put on high heat and bring to a boil (fat boils at 120 °). To determine whether boiled fat, lowered productivity and, if published sound (crackle), then it means that the deep fat heated to boiling. Large pieces of meat, poultry carcasses and gizzards dipped in frying and fry until cooked. The fat used for frying, is used repeatedly. Periodically, it is filtered and added to a fresh LMOs. This method prepares the following dishes: " Lamb stock aromatic ", " Tenderloin slices stock ", " chicken legs stock ", etc.
Roasting furnaces (Co) - used in Chinese kitchen frying special furnaces without chimneys. Furnace through hole in the furnace, wherein the door opening may have. In the center of the oven is a special crossbar, which is suspended on the product. After the furnace coal collected from the furnace opening and the product is suspended from the bar and grill. This method fry " Peking Duck."
Smoking (Xun) - in a metal dish (pot pot) put a piece of red-hot iron or charcoal naeypayut top layer of dry sawdust and sprinkle with sugar. Inside this special dish put a metal sieve with metal bars so that it does not touch the sawdust. Put on the grill product intended for smoking, and close the metal cover.
As a result of that smoldering sawdust and the vessel is filled with smoke, the product is exposed to smoke.
Beautiful presentation of meals stimulates the appetite, draws attention to the forthcoming human food increases the absorption of food.
Of great importance is the right combination of products harmonious in color. Dishes that are made from uniform in color products can be decorated with brightly colored vegetables or products of a different color. For example, for a dish " Kidney in a brown sauce " is used to design the green onions and fresh ginger.
Doing your dishes depends on the experience and skill of cooking. Despite the fact that most Chinese dishes are melkonarezanyh slides of different products of the same thickness and length, Chinese cooks know how very beautiful, with great elegance arrange meals. For example, " steam chicken with egg " in their appearance resembles a crescent around which crowded store. In this dish beautifully with green, red, black, yellow and white colors.
When placing dishes and cutting products are not random scraps, asymmetrically cut pieces. All this is done cooking quickly, as if on a platter lined by each pattern and it only remains to fill the finished parts.
In Chinese restaurants, visitors are served by pre-orders, resulting in the production hall and work rhythmically, smoothly and on schedule.
Predominantly lay tables for eight people or four people. As large banquet guests rounded number is 40 , 50, 60, etc., take place at round tables.
Banquet tables are known as some specialty products. For example, " Table with shark fins " (chitszisi), " Table with sea cucumber " (hayshensi), etc. When a hot snack dish of this product is fed first.
During feeding cold snacks and hot meals are drinking wine and other alcoholic beverages; feeding soups spirits do not drink. At the beginning or the end of a meal served green tea. Chinese banquets last no longer than 1-2 hours.
Below is a rough menu banquet table with duck (yatszysi) for eight people and technology of its submission.
Cold snacks are served on round porcelain dishes. On every dish must be at least three and not more than six appetizers. A total of eight people served no more than ten snacks. Snacks put on the table for 10-15 minutes before guests arrive.
Salad of duck languages Szechuan Chicken Salad Cauliflower Salad Preserved eggs with fresh tomatoes in a brown sauce Kidneys sweet and sour pork roll
Hot dishes, flour culinary, desserts are served on large platters. Total must be submitted at least eight kinds of hot meals four dishes of delicious food, including one sweet (sweet dish served not finally lunch, and in the intervals between the hot and cold), and four dishes from simple ingredients, including one hot dish especially for rice (a bun with a trepan, stew, meatballs , sauce, etc.). The flour culinary product is fed in between hot snack pianist sweet dish. Soups are served at the conclusion of dinner and released together with rice and a dish especially for rice.
If cold dishes and hot dishes ordered wine, the rice is served, and if the fault is not present, rice is served immediately upon arrival of the customer.
Hot dishes, desserts, soups
Peking Duck Fins Shark Steam Fish in Sweet and Sour Apples Puff pastry stuffed with chicken fillet, fried pork with green peas, roasted (chopped) with Szechuan cabbage
Fruits put on the table in vases along with cold cuts before the arrival of the customer.
Aromatic tea, or green with a strong taste, served in teapots, sugar. Separately put small bowls. Tea can be given at the beginning of the guests arrive and after treating.
Should stand on the table salt, soy sauce and vinegar. The following procedures serve meals at a banquet table can be changed as desired visitor.