Fast and strong fire - the
first and necessary condition for the manufacture of Chinese dishes.
Quick cooking, which usually
spends no more than 2-3 minutes, ensured not only prepared in advance
intermediates, having in Chinese cuisine of paramount importance, but also the
presence of special chambers (plates).
Plates in Chinese cuisine with
several large open burners. From one burner flame is knocked to the height of
30 - 40 cm, fire temperature reaches 300 - 400 ° C (high heat), another flame
burners and almost knocked it lower temperature (medium heat), and thirdly
there is no flame (low heat). Recently in China were used gas.
Depending on the type of heat
treatment of products used flame varying strengths.
Use in the manufacture of food
oval frying pan, colander and chemical. In a frying pan, cook hot meals, soups,
sauces, etc. For cooking in large quantities (10 servings and above) apply pan
with two metal handles. When cooked in a frying pan until the products are
immersed in the half recesses burners.
Utensils and equipment used in
Chinese cuisine, convenient, portable and durable.
Many dishes are steamed. To do
this in Chinese cuisine has a special focus to the boiler in which water boils
vigorously. On the boiler put special sieves one above the other.
Under the influence of hot
steam passing through a high pyramid standing on each other sieves, food is
cooked until tender.
The following describes the
most common ways of cooking products, and variations thereof are used in a
Moscow restaurant "Beijing" in the manufacture of Chinese dishes.
Soaking in water (Zhou) -
products put in cold or hot water (depending on the product) and cook on low
heat. During cooking, cold water was added. This method is used for cooking
Cooking in the broth (Chuan) -
boiling broth lowered thinly sliced pieces of meat, poultry, fish and put on
high heat. When the broth boils, take out food, since they are already boiled.
If the products are not very thinly sliced, then after a second broth boils,
you need to put it on a minute on low heat. This method is mainly used for some
Cooking in a broth with spices
(Hui) - in a pan with plenty of broth with spices dipped products and heated in
the fire of medium strength. After removing the foam poured starch dissolved in
cold water (1: 2). To when brewing starch did not form lumps, it is poured in a
thin stream, all the while rotating the pan from left to right. This method is
used for preparing a bouillon with cuttlefish and omelets, and hot dishes in
Cooking in the marinade (Lu) -
in a bowl and pour water as much soy sauce, dipped gauze bag with spices (a
mixture of cinnamon, cloves, ginger, star anise, pepper huatsze), add aromatic
vegetables, sugar, and rice wine Zhenka. All this is brought to a boil over low
heat. Then in a bowl with the marinade and put food on low heat and cook them
until tender. Broth remaining after pulping can be used several times, adding a
spice. In this way prepared aromatic chicken, giblets, lamb, etc.
Steaming (Chang) - a porcelain
or pottery put products added spices and seasonings and put the dishes in the
steam sieve. The sieve is set in a pot of boiling water and holding it there
until the products are not yet ready. This way boiled rice, dumplings,
dumplings, etc. Easy (Shao) - the pan, pour a small amount of fat, heat it over
high heat, put the products and fried for a minute, then pour the wine, broth,
put spices. All this stew over low heat until tender, then put on a strong fire
and hold up until the liquid evaporates. This method is used for cooking "
sweet and sour pork ", etc.
Quenching (Peng) - first foods
fried in a pan on both sides until golden brown, then pour in the chicken broth,
put the spices and keep on low heat until the broth until completely evaporated.
Prepared in this way, " The prawns stewed " and other dishes.
Fried foods from both sides (Jian)
in a small amount of fat - in a pan put oil, heat it over medium heat. In hot
fat and fry foods lowered them on both sides until golden brown. Then spices
and seasonings are placed, inverted several times products shaking pan. So
fried foods for meals " meatballs south ", etc.
Roasting products fryer (Chao)
- pour oil into the pan, the amount of which shall be equal to the number of
products, put meat, poultry, fish, fry them all the time shaking the pan on the
fire and stir with metal sticks to foods evenly browned, then throws them.
Thereafter, in a frying pan with the remaining small amount of fat put other
products included in the meal, fry them until half, shaking the pan over the
fire, add the pre- fried main products (meat, poultry, fish) and fry until
cooked. This method prepares the following dishes: " Lamb fried with
mushrooms and bamboo shoots syangu ", " Tenderloin, roasted with root,
false ", " chicken fillet, grilled with peppers," etc.
Roasting in the fryer (any) -
heated frying pan over high heat, pour in oil in an equal amount of food and
when it warms up to 70 ; -80 °, put the products, cut into pieces and soaked in
egg and starch diluted with cold water (1 2). When frying foods, so they do not
stick together, stir sticks. In this way prepared the following dishes: " loin,
fried with garlic and onions ", " fried pork liver," etc.
Deep fried (Ja) - the pan,
pour a large amount of fat (3-4 L), put on high heat and bring to a boil (fat
boils at 120 °). To determine whether boiled fat, lowered productivity and, if
published sound (crackle), then it means that the deep fat heated to boiling.
Large pieces of meat, poultry carcasses and gizzards dipped in frying and fry
until cooked. The fat used for frying, is used repeatedly. Periodically, it is
filtered and added to a fresh fat. This method prepares the following dishes:
" Lamb stock aromatic ", " Tenderloin slices stock ",
" chicken legs stock ", etc.
Roasting furnaces (Co) - used
in Chinese cuisine frying special furnaces without chimneys. Furnace through
hole in the furnace, wherein the door opening may have. In the center of the
oven is a special crossbar, which is suspended on the product. After the furnace
coal collected from the furnace opening and the product is suspended from the
bar and grill. This method fry " Peking Duck."
Smoking (Xun) - in a metal
dish (pot pot) put a piece of red-hot iron or charcoal on top poured a layer of
dry sawdust and sprinkle with sugar. Inside this special dish, put a metal
sieve with metal bars so that it does not touch the sawdust. Put on the grill
product intended for smoking, and close the metal cover.
As a result of that smoldering
sawdust and the vessel is filled with smoke, the product is exposed to smoke.
Beautiful presentation of meals stimulates the appetite, draws attention to the
forthcoming human food increases the absorption of food.
Of great importance is the
right combination of products harmonious in color. Dishes that are made from
uniform in color products can be decorated with brightly colored vegetables or
products of a different color. For example, for a dish " Kidney in a brown
sauce " is used to design the green onions and fresh ginger.
Doing your dishes depends on
the experience and skill of cooking. Despite the fact that most Chinese dishes
are little slides of different products
of the same thickness and length, Chinese cooks know how very beautiful, with
great finesse) arrange meals. For example, " steam chicken with egg "
in their appearance resembles a crescent around which crowded store. In this
dish beautifully with green, red, black, yellow and white colors. When placing
dishes and cutting products are not random scraps, asymmetrically cut pieces.
All this is cooking quickly, as if on a platter lined by each pattern and it
only remains to fill the finished parts.